Thursday, June 29, 2017

UVAFinance welcomes new Assistant Vice President of Financial Operations

Jerry Burke likes to build things: new crown molding in his son’s house, a new deck and fence for his own home. He enjoys the work he puts in crafting these projects, and seeing the resulting transformation once the job is complete.

As the new Assistant Vice President for Financial Operations in UVAFinance, Burke will be in charge of building a robust and modern internal controls system and transforming core business practices at the University.

The AVP for Financial Operations itself represents a transformation; during a late-2016 search for a new Controller, UVAFinance leadership and the search team realized that the process and system changes coming up were going to require something slightly different than the traditional role entailed.

In this new role, Burke has oversight of accounting, financial reporting, procurement, payroll, and tax and accounts receivable. The alignment of these functions will allow for more responsive service to UVAFinance stakeholders, and allow UVAFinance to tackle upcoming changes with more speed and ease.

Most recently the Chief Financial Officer at Bloomberg Tradebook and Bloomberg Capital Markets, Burke brings deep experience in financial operations, internal controls and financial reporting. He has implemented financial systems and led a chart of accounts redesign, both of which will be required in UVAFinance in the near future. A new internal control framework, standardized and documented business practices, migration of payroll to Ufirst, and, inevitably, a new finance system are also on the horizon for UVAFinance.

“Jerry’s background and skillset will allow him to lead this change,” said Melody Bianchetto, Vice President for Finance.

“He has the specialized knowledge necessary to ensure success; he can help us handle the changes that are coming while keeping us on track with our mission and core values,” she said.

With a 30 year career in financial services based in Manhattan, Burke’s choice to work in academia in Charlottesville might seem potentially jarring, but he is philosophical about it.

First, he points out that he commuted to his work in the city, while he and his wife lived in small-town New Jersey, bringing up three children, now grown.

As for the shift from business to academics, he said, “This is a unique opportunity for me to leverage 80 to 90% of my background while working on subject matter that’s completely different.”

“It’s sort of like being a carpenter who builds houses, but one day you wake up and decide to make fine furniture. You can leverage a lot of your skills and do something new that interests you. UVA’s mission is something I want to be a part of.”

Burke looks forward to working collaboratively with University and school financial leaders, as well as those in financial roles at the UVA Medical Center, UVA’s College at Wise, and our affiliated foundations.

Building partnerships across the University will be a big priority for Burke: “We want to make sure we’re providing people with the information they need to make decisions and understand trends, and help them forecast the future as accurately as possible,” he said.

“We’re all part of the same team,” he commented.

“I look forward to building up our team and moving us forward quickly and intelligently during a period of many changes.”

UVAFinance Brand and Communications Resources Available!

Beasley finds happy homes for unclaimed payments

Not everyone at UVA knows who Laverne Beasley is, but those who do, know that a call from her could mean good news.

Beasley works in accounts receivable in UVAFinance, handling all of the payments that come into Bank of America for the university: payments to sponsored programs, UVA Press, Student Financial Services, and all of the state to state payments, just to name a few. In the course of a year, she receives and books over $2 billion each year . . . and sometimes, the money comes in with no indication of to whom it belongs, and that’s when Beasley starts researching.

Laverne Beasley of Accounts Receivable
Sometimes the confusion is on the part of the sender of the money. Beasley says wires can get sent to the wrong place, and there can be confusion over all the different UVA accounts. But sometimes, she says, the transfers arrive with no direction on where to apply it. On the day of this interview, Beasley was holding a $20,000 payment in a suspended account as she worked to find its owner.

“You might think people would be looking for their money,” Beasley laughed, “but I do have to call around. Sometimes people in the schools will know the money is coming, but they’re not sure exactly how much it will be. It’s my job to find out where the money belongs.”

Beasley doesn’t mind doing the investigative work it can take to properly allocate payments. Over the course of her 20 year career, she’s enjoyed talking to people all over Grounds and having great conversations.

“When I go to events like UVAForward and introduce myself, people will say, ‘oh, so you’re Laverne Beasley!” she said.

Beasley says the advent of QlikView has made her job easier, and she anticipates it getting even better once accounts receivable is in UBI. She has seen several changes since she came to UVA in 1997, and overall she has enjoyed working with people, especially when she locates a payment that belongs to them.

“It’s funny,” she said. “Now when I call someone on the phone and say ‘this is Laverne,’ the first thing they say is, ‘hi Laverne, do you have money for me?’”

UVAFinance Softball Team builds collaboration on and off the field

Think about the last “team-building” exercise you took part in. Hopefully it didn’t involve any “trust falls,” but even if it didn’t, it probably wasn’t as fun as playing softball with your colleagues on a lovely summer evening.

This is the second summer that UVAFinance has had a softball team available for staff and their families. The team, originally called the “Carruthers Crushers,” was formed last year in Student Financial Services (SFS) to take part in UVA’s summer Faculty and Staff league.

“We had a blast in the Faculty and Staff league,” said Xavier Wiltbank, an application and systems analyst and programmer in SFS and team organizer.
The Carruthers Crushers (crushing it!)

Wiltbank and his SFS teammates soon realized that with the growing number of people from UVAFinance who were interested in playing, it might be easier, and less intimidating for all, if they removed some of the competition and rules that came with league play and just formed a league of their own.

That’s exactly what they did, and this summer’s UVAFinance team plays in a very relaxed environment, usually one night a week on Copeley Field. Staff members of all skill levels come out to play, often bringing family members. Some just come to cheer their colleagues on.

For Danielle Hancock, Training and Development Specialist in Outreach and Compliance, the best part of playing on the team has been getting to know her colleagues.

“There are so many people I don’t work with regularly,” she said, “but I get to know them on the softball field, and we’re smiling and laughing the whole time.”

Participation on the team spans all departments within UVAFinance. Wiltbank says a group of 30 people from all departments regularly take part in the (mostly) weekly games. Players also represent all ages and all skill levels.
Email Xavier Wiltbank if you'd like more information.

“We have people who’ve never played before, and people who used to play in school. We’re not really looking for players of any particular skill level; we just want people to come join us and enjoy themselves,” said Wiltbank.

For an organization made up of many departments, softball has been a fun, team-building endeavor – a great way to open up channels across departments.

“Work is work,” said Wiltbank, adding, “but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t enjoy yourself while you’re doing it, and playing a game of softball together helps build relationships to make work more enjoyable.”

New Senior Accountant in Sponsored Programs Post Award

Danial Weinstein has joined the team in Sponsored Programs as a Senior Accountant in Post Award. In this role, he will be the lead for the non-School of Medicine Post Award Financial Management Team, and will manage his own portfolio of awards for the School of Engineering.
Weinstein recently joined OSP

Weinstein has worked with the Defense Contract Audit Agency in Los Angeles for the past eight years. He has performed multiple audits of federal contracts and is familiar with regulations, policies and procedures applicable to those contracts. He has a BS in Business Administration as well as a Level 2 Department of Defense Financial Management Certification.

“This role is an opportunity for me to grow professionally. The world of contract auditing is highly specific, and while it’s very interesting, it doesn’t lend itself to much accounting experience,” said Weinstein, adding that his roots in small-town central Florida had him looking for opportunities in smaller cities.

Weinstein looks forward to helping shape the positive structural and cultural changes ongoing in Sponsored Programs.

In his spare time, he enjoys playing baseball and softball and volunteering as a Little League umpire, in addition to reading and experimenting in the kitchen.


Celebrating the Achievements of Sponsored Programs Staff

The University Industry Demonstration Partnership (UIDP) recently announced the election of   board members. Among them was Elizabeth Adams, Assistant Vice President for Research Administration at UVA, who was re-elected to her role as University Director. The UIDP is comprised of approximately 150 members from premier innovation companies and the world’s best research universities. The group supports mutually beneficial collaborations between academia and industry, developing strategies for addressing common issues between the two sectors and developing synergy and innovation between universities and companies. As a board member, Adams works with other members of the UIDP leadership team to address challenges impacting research collaboration and help develop new approaches for industry and academia to work together.

Read more about UIDP at

Urmila Bajaj, Director of Post Award, was recently recognized by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for her excellent work in preparing UVA’s response to the FY 2016 Higher Education Research and Development Survey. Information submitted in response to the survey becomes part of NSF’s statistics on research and development expenditures in 40 fields. NSF routinely provides these statistics to federal, state, and academic decision makers. John Gawalt, Director of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics within the NSF, lauded Bajaj and her team for the significant amount of effort that went into providing the information requested on the survey.

To see previous years’ survey results as well as a variety of other science and engineering statistics, visit

Upcoming Webinar!

Kelly Morrison, Director of Pre-Award in Sponsored Programs, will lead a national webinar on cost sharing, a major topic in research administration.  Register on the NCURA website at

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Introducing UVAFinance's new 'Go-To' Team

In every department or office, there always seems to be a person or two who knows the answer to any question, the location of any item, or the right person to go to for any concern. These “go-to” people are invaluable, as we all realize when one of them is on vacation or otherwise occupied when we need help.

Chances are, the person who came to your mind as your own area’s “go-to” might be on the newly formed UVAFinance Administrative Services Group.

Formed in response to the UVAFinance Appreciative Inquiry process and made up of administrative professionals from all departments, the ASG team will provide comprehensive, coordinated administrative services to all of UVAFinance.

The team has been hard at work for several months, identifying their strengths, coordinating efforts, and solidifying how to execute roles and responsibilities to best serve UVAFinance going forward. The official launch date for the ASG team is July 1.

According to team leader Disha Venkatesan, Director of Administrative Services and Strategic Initiatives, the team is focusing on building an infrastructure that will improve productivity and efficiency.

Organized around basic administrative functions such as finance (Recon@, FTE management, cost transfers, etc.), Purchasing, Human Resources (onboarding and offboarding, etc.), physical space, travel and expense, records management, events, budgets, and communications, the team will be cross-trained, collaborative, and able to back one another up at a moment’s notice.

“The contact for each unit won’t change,” said Venkatesan. What will change, she clarified, is how the work gets done.

“We’re working on standard operating procedures and cross training,” she said; adding, “for staff, this means that when your ‘go-to’ person isn’t available, you’ll still have help available – someone who will know exactly how to assist and will already be in the loop, because they’re part of our team.”

Stacey Rittenhouse, “Mayor of Carruthers” and longtime “go-to” person, says that the team’s organization means that things won’t fall through the cracks.

“There will be a greater continuity of service,” she said.

Another benefit of the new team, said member Patrick Wood, is that because the team works so closely together, they will be able to quickly identify processes that need improvement and address them.

About his fellow ASG members, Mike Beverage said, “the things we do in our roles have always impacted one another. Now, the processes are running more smoothly and we can collaborate and streamline everyone’s workload. It’s enlightening, and definitely a good thing.”

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Directions & Connections: Exploring the UBI Roadmap with UVA Wise

UVA Wise is a 4.5-hour drive from Charlottesville.
Association between University of Virginia and The University of Virginia’s College at Wise began in 1954, and in that time, the College at Wise has experienced campus-wide growth, from the curriculum (up to 30+ majors), infrastructure (new buildings and significant renovations), as well as the enrollment (currently over 2,000 students). This growth period also coincides with building stronger operational – and logistical - ties to UVA, with 285 miles of highway separating the two institutions.

Across the University and its colleges, Discoverer has been the primary reporting system at UVa-Wise. As part of the University-wide financial initiative, the Managerial Reporting Project (MRP) team at UVA developed a dynamic new data reporting environment, known as UBI - or Universal Business Intelligence – to replace Discoverer.

Judy DiVita, Director of MRP, and Matt Douglas, Training Developer on the MRP team, recently embarked on the four-and-a-half hour drive from Charlottesville into the mountains of Southwest Virginia for training UVaWise staff on the UBI reporting tool.

Read more here about the journey to Wise.


As Discoverer approaches the August 31 sunset for GA, GL, and LD reporting, and the December 31 sunset for SIS reporting, UBI adoption continues increasing across the University.

Already a UBI User?

Get more information in the UBI Community.

New to UBI? Get Access and Training

You will need to sign up for the Intro to UBI – GA or GL focus course in order to gain access to UBI. Go to the UBI training page to register for an available Intro to UBI – GA or GL Focus training session.

Additionally, it is suggested but not required, that you begin the ESHARP access prior to attending training. View the Get Started page to learn more.

Car Service now available in TravelUVA

Click image for larger view
Need a ride to the airport, hotel, or meeting site? Car service is now available to book via TravelUVA’s online booking tool.

TravelUVA makes booking car service quick and painless, as the system reads any existing travel plans and suggests car service when you add ground transportation to your itinerary. You can also book car service independently, or for guests. Just click on the car service icon in TravelUVA!

Questions? Need help? Call 924-4212 and select option 2 or email

SWaM Business Enterprise Day showcases 24 firms

Visitors and exhibitors mingling during
SWaM Business Enterprise Day
Procurement and Supplier Diversity Services invited over 20 well-established, multi-million dollar firms to their annual Small, Women-owned, and Minority-owned (SWaM) Business Enterprise Day on June 6.

This year’s event featured firms specializing in security, cyber security, batteries and bulbs, promotional items, consulting (management, IT, environmental), storage and material handling, IT peripherals, design and graphics, relocation services/household movers, engineering, workforce and technical educational solutions, measurement and weighing, and supplies (lab, industrial, electronics).

Several hundred visitors from across Grounds took the opportunity to meet with representatives from these businesses, learning more about the goods and services they offer.

In addition to the afternoon showcase in the Newcomb Hall Ballroom, exhibiting SWaM vendors were also treated to an intensive networking event that morning.

Jenn Daughtry, President of Greener Concepts, an outdoor furniture provider, said the opportunity to connect with other vendors was much appreciated.

“The setup of this event has been great,” she said, adding, “We’ve really enjoyed the one on one interaction.”

Supplier Diversity Champion and event coordinator Jack King said “This annual event was created to provide an intimate business atmosphere where UVA schools and departments could draw on a diverse community of well-established, multi-million dollar small businesses – the innovators and doers who power the economic engine across the Commonwealth and beyond – to learn more about the goods and services they offer — goods and services our schools and departments need. This event is just one of many ways UVA’s team of Procurement and Supplier Diversity Services professionals, is committed to helping our Virginia business community — the backbone of our economic landscape and the cornerstone of our communities — grow and nurture their businesses while remaining strong, vibrant, and successful.”

T-Minus 30 days until Office 365 launches within UVAFinance!

On July 12, Office 365 will go live for UVAFinance, a long-anticipated upgrade that includes email/calendar and Skype for Business. Users will see immediate benefits such as
  • A more robust Outlook Web App (OWA) that will look and function more like the desktop version, including access to tasks and shared calendars.
  • An increased email quota (50GB compared to today’s 6B)
  • The ability to download and use the Microsoft Outlook Mobile App, which, among other benefits, will provide a perfectly synced calendar 
  • Fully supported Skype for Business, including instant messaging, voice and video calls, desktop sharing, and much more. 
Watch for more emails with additional information from the Office 365 Project Team as go-live draws near. In the meantime, you can prepare for the upgrade by

Ufirst: What's in it for you?

Ashley Feero, UVAFinance
HR Consultant
Ufirst puts you, our customers, at the center of our future HR services. Through collaboration, creative problem-solving, and best in class HR systems, HR will support UVAFinance's efforts as the valued and trusted financial partner that the University turns to first.

What’s in it for you? Between now and summer of 2018, HR will transform into our new delivery model, providing you consistent, exceptional HR service through our Communities of Expertise. We will deliver powerful technology, simplified processes, and teams empowered to work more strategically together.

Interested in learning more? Please visit the Ufirst website or reach out to me at

ACDA adoption gives UVA the competitive advantage in research

The Office of Sponsored Programs is building upon UVA’s recent entrance into the Accelerated Clinical Trial Agreement (ACTA) by adopting the Accelerated Confidential Disclosure Agreement (ACDA). Both agreements can significantly shorten the time it takes to start up a clinical trial.

Developed using terms similar to the ACTA, the purpose of the ACDA is to streamline the contracting process when initiating studies with industry.

The ACDA is a pre-negotiated agreement that, when used, gives researchers access to protocols without the delays of confidentiality agreement negotiation. Access to that protocol is the first step in potentially initiating a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is increasingly very competitive so the reduction in start-up time can be a big advantage.

To learn more about accelerated research agreements such as ACDA and ACTA, visit

Contact Kristy Hall or Lynn Koplin in Sponsored Programs for more information on UVA’s participation.

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Building a better University experience: UVAForward 2017 a great success

Over 300 people attended this year’s UVA Forward conference on May 25, enjoying a day of networking and learning how they can be a part of “building a better University experience.”

Led by Tom Kim (HR) and Erika Priddy (UVA Finance), the UVA Forward planning team included Kathleen Aliff (Ufirst), Kirby Armentrout (Darden), Matthew Darring (School of Medicine), and Keith Donnelly (ITS). Over many months, the team developed a robust program "for professionals who wish to lead, learn, and collaborate."

Session attendees learn about Data Strategy at UVAForward
From effective written communication and data strategy and visualization to mindfulness and even the lessons we can find in jazz, this year’s conference had something for everyone.

Priddy said the planning team is just beginning to sift through feedback from attendee surveys, but both the energy from the event and comments emailed to the team afterward indicate a high level of satisfaction with and excitement for the conference and its content.

“The overall energy level I felt at the conference is one of my markers for success,” she said.

“I have also received comments via email that say things like, ‘I wanted you to know how much yesterday meant to me,’ and ‘I feel so reinvigorated and refreshed,’” she added.

The planning team had that sort of inspiration in mind when they planned the conference content, in addition to a strong focus on providing practical skills that could be put to effective use immediately. The focus on practical skills, incidentally, came from feedback from last year’s conference.

As the planning team considered speakers and sessions that might be a fit with the concept of “building a better University experience,” they focused on fostering the sense that every individual has a role to play in making a great experience at UVA.

Thank you to the planning committee for their commitment to providing an energizing event, and thank you to those attendees who are in their offices now, applying new knowledge and acting on their inspiration!

Procurement supports UVA's research mission

Reducing administrative burden for UVA researchers is a priority for Procurement and Supplier Diversity Services (PSDS). The PSDS team has established hundreds of new contracts with research and development companies to better meet the needs for specialized goods, services, and equipment, with a continued commitment to good, old-fashioned customer service and going the extra mile.

The UVA Center for Advanced Biomanufacturing needed a rheometer to pursue their work in bioengineering. If you’re wondering what a rheometer is, you’re probably not alone – suffice it to say, it’s a highly specialized piece of equipment available from very few sources.

Not long ago, a purchase like this would require sole source justification, a tedious process. However, thanks to PSDS’ innovative new Research and Development RFP process, Anton Paar, the supplier of the rheometer needed for this work, was set up as a contract vendor. This made the buying process much easier for the researchers and entitled them to the advantages and protections that come with working with a vendor under contract.

If the story ended there, it would be a success, but there’s more: PSDS was also able to help the researchers navigate another complex process.

With a contract relationship established, it made sense for other researchers to know more about the types of specialized equipment the company offered. Dr. Steven Caliari, Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science and Center
Anton Paar's mobile lab during its recent visit to UVA.
for Advance Biomanufacturing steering committee member, talked to Anton Paar about bringing their mobile lab to UVA. The company was happy to bring their show on the road, but even as a contract vendor, bringing a mobile laboratory and all its contents to Grounds is not a simple task.

Once again, PSDS stepped in, this time acting as a liaison for UVA researchers and the contracted company. They worked with UVA departments such as facilities, environmental health and safety, and others to secure the necessary permissions for the lab to come on site.

Once the dots were connected, the lab arrived on a sunny day in April.  Chemistry researchers were able to take a quick jaunt to a parking lot nearby and learn more about products that could help with their research (and since Anton Paar is a contract vendor, anyone who visited the lab could potentially purchase from them).

Dr. Caliari saw the benefits of the contract relationship in this situation, commenting, “It’s great to have that comfort level with vendors, because we know that if there’s an issue, if students need to be trained, or if there are questions about a new technique, we have had face time with Anton Paar and we know they will be happy to help.”

He also appreciated the way PSDS jumped in to make the mobile lab visit a reality for busy researchers.

“Everyone who needed to get looped in got looped in and it came together really nicely,” he said.

Valerie Clem joins Student Financial Services

Valerie Clem has joined Student Financial Services as Assistant Director of Athletic Financial Aid. Previously with Virginia Commonwealth University as an Athletics and Veterans Certification Coordinator, Clem has worked in financial aid for over ten years.

She has a Bachelor of Science in Sociology from VCU and a Master of Science in Higher Education Administration from Drexel University and is currently writing her dissertation for a Ph.D. in Higher Education Administration from the University of Nebraska. 

As a first generation college student herself, Clem says she enjoys helping families understand the financial aid process and helping students achieve their academic goals. An avid fan of professional wrestling, Clem has attended WrestleMania seven times.

UVAFinance welcomes new Director of Financial Reporting

UVAFinance is pleased to welcome Thomas Schneeberger to Financial Operations as Director of Financial Reporting. In this role, he will be responsible for the year-end close, including coordination with State Auditors, UVAFinance, and Foundations, the preparation of the University’s annual and quarterly financial reports, and generally stewarding the University’s financial system. 

Thomas Schneeberger
Schneeberger most recently served as the Assistant Director of Financial Reporting and Management Services at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, but his career path covered many miles prior to that role.

Schneeberger’s career in finance began with a degree from the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration in Austria, and shortly thereafter brought him stateside for a role with the City of Lexington in North Carolina after a year in Puerto Rico, where he married his wife Irela.

After serving as the Lexington’s Senior Accountant and then Financial Services Manager, Schneeberger decided to pursue his Master in Accounting at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and subsequent CPA licensure, which in turn led to a position with Ernst & Young as an auditor. For Ernst & Young, Schneeberger worked in Raleigh and the Cayman Islands, where he predominantly focused on the financial services industry. Eventually, he sought to leave the sphere of public accounting in favor of working in higher education.

Since his arrival at UVA early this May, he has been completing training in Oracle and other finance modules, as well as prepping the financial report for next year, assessing the impact of new standards from the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, and generally getting acquainted with UVA.

“I’m wrapping my head around the university structure, getting to know the players and stakeholders involved, and beginning to get in and get my hands dirty,” Schneeberger said.

He said he has found the transition from UNC to UVA to be positive.

“UVA is certainly a school with a great reputation, and Charlottesville is a nice town with a lot going on,” he commented, adding that he and his wife have already found some favorite places among Charlottesville’s many offerings, and they both look forward to enjoying outdoor activities, especially those involving water.

Schneeberger is a surfer, avid swimmer, and lover of water sports. His sports acumen doesn’t stop there; he was also somewhat of a basketball star in college, playing in a national semi-professional league in Austria.

Schneeberger’s enthusiasm for his new role is due especially to his enjoyment of working in higher education.

“As a University, we don’t just impact our direct customers – we do outreach in the community, we perform research, and we affect the world. We do a lot of good things here, and when you’re in a financial reporting role, you see the overall perspective and get to report on all of it.”

Urmila Bajaj of Sponsored Programs to Co-Chair National Conference

Urmila Bajaj, Director of Post Award in the Office of Sponsored Programs, was recently announced as co-chair of the upcoming conference for financial research administrators given by the National Council of University Research Administrators (NCURA). This is the 18th annual conference and is projected to bring together over 1,000 research administrators from around the country to Puerto Rico next March.

Urmila Bajaj
Bajaj has been a member of NCURA since 1998 and has served in a variety of roles. In addition to her position with the Financial Research Administration Conference, she has presented on the national and regional level and served as an NCURA Peer Programs Reviewer for a number of years.

“NCURA hosts a number of onsite and online training programs; their conferences are a valuable forum for networking, discussing trends in research administration policies and best practices, and getting advice from experts,” said Bajaj.

NCURA’s Executive Director, Kathleen Larmett, stated, “We are delighted to announce Urmila as the co-chair of our 2018 Financial Research Administration Conference. Urmila’s experience and leadership in various roles at our organization and in her professional career made her the perfect candidate for this role.”

NCURA is a professional society dedicated to advancing the field of research administration through education and professional development programs. Conceived by eight research administrators in 1959, the group was intended to be a platform where University Research Administrators across the nation could exchange information on various research administration topics. From 45 members from 40 institutions at the first annual meeting, the NCURA research administration community has grown to over 7,000 national and international members.

NCURA’s 18th Annual Financial Research Administration Conference will take place in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at the Puerto Rico Convention Center on March 1-3, 2018. Click here for more information on NCURA.